文:刁鲲鹏 — 2015-6-18 15:25:13

【白熊坪日记】植物大战羚牛

  红外相机拍下寒冬里的羚牛
 
  2015年3月21日,周末,大晴天。窗外金黄的油菜花田依旧灿烂,甜腻腻的惹人兴奋。吃过早饭,前一晚约好的几位保护区员工已经等了一段时间了。带足了饮水,从镇上的小超市胡乱买了一大堆垃圾食品,我们就开着小卡卡浩浩荡荡地往白熊坪而去。
 
  “春姑娘”渐至白熊坪
 
  曾经有朋友问:你们在山上是不是吃的是各种绿色食品啊?其实真实情况让人大跌眼镜,山上的一草一木都是受保护的,况且我们也没有那么多功夫浪费在“挖野菜”上。
 
  读硕士的时候我在秦岭待了一年半,在山里的某个清晨,面对着油泼辣子拌胡萝卜丝,我长叹一声,发誓这辈子再不碰土豆、洋葱、蛋黄派、胡萝卜。因为那个保护站没有路,我要一个多月才能下一次县城,徒步攀爬9公里爬上出山唯一的一个山坳口,然后坐上前一天约好的面包车,在山路上摇摇晃晃1个多小时才能到最近的小县城补充给养。小县城常住人口不到一万人,据说彼此都是熟人,大部分都能论上亲戚。
 
  因为绿叶蔬菜难以储存,所以各种块根、块茎类蔬菜就成了补充给养的首选。蛋黄派是中午的标配午饭,吃了一年半以后,我看到蛋黄派都想吐。因为要在中午跟在熊猫屁股后面摄像、录音、做样方、捡便便,我们只能带各种简单便携的垃圾食品凑活。吃了一年半的土豆、洋葱、蛋黄派、胡萝卜以后,身高一米七六的我瘦到了118斤。
 
  路遇羚牛
 
  行至半路,研修生喊了一声“看,羚牛!”,大家循声望去,发现河对面一头羚牛在悠闲地啃着青草,见到我们的车路过,漫不经心地摇了摇脑袋。这个保护区里羚牛的遇见率非常高,似乎已经成了保护区的一大特色。
 
  白熊坪路边的羚牛
 
  来到站上以后,站上的草木已经略微返青,暖洋洋地晒在明亮的阳光之下,努力积攒着张红吐绿的力量。虽不及镇上的花开荼蘼,但也颇具了几分春色。打开房门,开窗通风。一个冬天没住人,老鼠把临走剩下的半个柠檬都给掏空了,也不知道它酸倒牙没有。屋子后面的水泥台上有一大堆羚牛粪便,看来有头羚牛在这里渡过了好几个寒风呼啸的夜晚。
 
  保护站上的羚牛粪便
 
  我先前对羚牛并没有什么特殊的感觉,记忆中第一次知道羚牛这个物种大约是初中的时候从电视上看到的,具体什么节目忘了,好像是一个动物园在讲他们驯养羚牛的经验,画面里是一头养在动物园里的羚牛,狂躁地冲撞着铁栏杆。然而真正地跟羚牛打交道还是在秦岭搞研究的时候。先前只是听说羚牛危险,真正颠覆我认知的,是那次爬光头山。
 
  羚牛成灾
 
  那是2012年秋天,我和一个师兄还有两个向导背着几十公斤重的仪器和物资徒步爬了六七个小时去光头山做研究,在到达光头山顶以后发现了触目惊心的场景:大片大片的冷杉林死掉,碗口粗的杜鹃树被顺山推倒,歪歪扭扭地铺满了整片山坡,地上的草皮被大面积掀开,像被犁了一遍一样裸露出骇人的沙土,衬着那天的浓雾,整片林子里一片沉寂的死气。接下来的几天里,我找到了真凶。
 
  雾中死气沉沉的山坡
 
  是近几年疯长起来的羚牛。它们需要在树上蹭痒,时间一长就会把树皮磨烂,松杉类树木树皮愈合能力很差,只要树皮一烂,过不了几年整棵冷杉就会死掉,一根根兀立在山坡上透出十足的死气。有的山头百分之八十甚至九十以上的冷杉都死掉了,而且没有幼龄冷杉。
 
  冬季羚牛食物匮乏,就会攀折甚至骑爬冲撞整株的杜鹃花以攫取它那并不繁盛的叶子,这样整株的树都会顺山趴下然后死掉,有一个山坡上几乎所有的杜鹃花都被弄死,只有那么零星的几株还擎着少得可怜的几片叶子。然而就是这么少的几片叶子还要面对即将到来的寒冬里饥饿牛群的掠夺。我很喜欢杜鹃花,所以看到如此的惨状不免对羚牛有种厌恶。
 
  在冷杉和杜鹃相继死掉以后,箭竹林迅速占领原先长有冷杉和杜鹃的生境,高海拔那极度浓密(密度高达每平米250棵)的箭竹让一切乔木的再生不再可能。羚牛,用自己巨大的身躯改造着森林里的生境,其作用不容小觑。
 
  某保护区内被磨烂的冷杉树皮
 
  此外,由于大型掠食动物相继灭绝,野猪也变得极其泛滥,山坡上随处可见成片的被野猪拱起的泥土,山脊上的小道也被羚牛和野猪踩成烂泥模样。那个保护区里最后一只老虎在上世纪七十年代被当地政府悬赏枪杀;曾经聚啸山林、凶残无比、不可一世的豺也早已被赶尽杀绝;那片土地可能是金钱豹在横跨中国东西的秦岭山脉最后的领地,然而金钱豹,又少得可怜,几十台红外相机工作了一整年也只拍到了一次金钱豹的背影。
 

  常在红外相机前露脸的野猪
 
  冬天的时候,羚牛除了攫食杜鹃的叶子以外,还会下到村庄周围啃食山民地里的青菜。而这给彼此带来的都是致命的灾难,2012年冬天,我目睹一头羚牛因为同伴顶伤村民而被射杀。省厅派来的人手起枪落,割走牛头以后,围观的村民一拥而上,半小时内把六七百斤重的羚牛剃成白骨。那年冬天,保护区周边的村子里,羚牛至少造成两死三伤,而因此殒命的羚牛数量则远多于被它们顶死、顶伤的人数。除此之外,羚牛还啃食村民种的厚朴树树皮,一个山里的老农曾跟我抱怨:“保护啥子嘛,你们保护熊猫还好,(熊猫)不咬人,我们都被羚牛糟蹋惨了,你们还保护!”
 
  白熊坪的牛粪
 
  在房子里休息了片刻,我们便背着干粮和饮水往文县河上游走去,文县河里面竹子长得很好,非常适合大熊猫生存。我们计划沿河而上,探查一下日后在这里开展科研项目的路线,希望能遇到熊猫或者熊猫取食的痕迹。河谷两边的林下密密麻麻长满了糙花箭竹,竹林小路两边淡淡的粉萼报春开得十分粉嫩。间或几株紫堇已经萌出花柄,在林下没有着生竹子的地方,紫堇生物量很大,过几天盛开之后会是一个非常烂漫的紫色世界。
 
  林下的紫堇
 
  行进中我们不时停下,在山坡上探查熊猫取食的情况。可能这段时间熊猫还没有翻到文县河来,几处采食的痕迹都是陈旧的,熊猫粪便也都已经高度分解。走了大约两个小时以后,发现悬崖边上有一棵红豆杉,树影婆娑地站在陡峭的崖边,非常飘逸。大家很兴奋,这时候有人问了一句:“为什么红豆杉都长在悬崖峭壁上?”唉,是啊,经历过疯狂的盗采盗伐,能留下的就只剩生长在难以攀爬的悬崖峭壁上的小树了。这些年红豆杉被神化,连树桩都要挖出来做木杯子,商家宣称其有“防癌抗癌”功能,真的让人觉得可笑又无奈,就那点微乎其微的紫杉醇,怎么可能起作用。
 
  白熊坪的竹林
 
  一路上,遇到几头羚牛,还有遍地的羚牛粪便,走了大约3个小时以后,我们掉头往回走,在河里巨大的花岗石间跳跃腾挪,然后抄了一条陡峭的小路往回走。小道很陡峭需要手脚并用,但是依旧布满了大大小小的羚牛粪便,我真的很好奇那庞大的身躯是怎么爬上来的。翻过了这段山梁,下到平时监测巡护用的一个小木屋前,屋前的草皮也仿佛被犁过一般被野猪拱了个遍。散落遍地的,依旧是让人忧心的羚牛粪便。
 
 
  野猪翻拱过的草地
 
  白熊坪保护区的羚牛问题可能更加严重,这里大部分是当年禁伐以后长起来的次生林,林下植被很丰富,而且森林演替很快。先前已经有专家提出过这里的羚牛已经对保护区的生境造成了胁迫,但是限于法律法规的约束和羚牛一级保护动物的身份,目前依旧是停留在“单纯的保护”上面。羚牛越来越多,对食物量的需求越来越高;但随着森林演替,乔木在长大,林下植被将越来越少,矛盾逐渐激化。按现状下去,这里的草食动物很可能会在不远的将来迎来一次大饥荒。
 
  秦岭某保护区内一片凌乱的冷杉林
 
  好在保护区正在针对羚牛开展一系列的研究,比如疫源疫病研究和种群数量调查。有越来越多的学者也开始关注生态系统的健康问题,在多方努力下,这个保护区的保护工作很可能将实现“从单纯保护到科学管理”的质的飞跃。
 
  下山路上,依旧是牛粪遍地。但是有理由相信,经过我们持续的努力,这个小小的世界会有一个更美好、更健康的将来。
 
  羚牛的保护,期待科学管理(王放/摄)
 
what to do when your wife cheated on you blog.sitters4charities.org wife wants to cheat
what to do when your wife cheated on you blog.sitters4charities.org wife wants to cheat
what to do when your wife cheated on you read wife wants to cheat
finding out your boyfriend cheated go i cheated on my boyfriend now what
why do boys cheat on their girlfriends blog.linglinzhu.com why do guys cheat on their girlfriends
how to make your wife cheat tracyawheeler.com my wife cheated now what do i do
how to make your wife cheat site my wife cheated now what do i do
indian sex stories com go hindi erotic sex stories
adult stories about sex femchoice.org erotic preteen sex stories
walgreens photo coupons online click coupons rx
walgreens pharmacy coupons new prescription discount drug coupon albertsons pharmacy coupon
walgreens pharmacy coupons new prescription discount drug coupon albertsons pharmacy coupon
walgreens pharmacy coupons new prescription open albertsons pharmacy coupon
medication coupons printable chessbin.com walgreens photo promo codes
copay cards for prescription drugs blog.robard.com walgreens coupons for prints
cvs photo promo codes click cvs deals
how to get abortion abortion pill abortion at 6 weeks
diflucan 50mg blog.idilbaby.com amoxicillin 500mg
avodart link tretinoin 0.025%
avodart yovi.info tretinoin 0.025%
new prescription coupons open prescription coupon card
new prescription coupons open prescription coupon card
pfizer viagra coupon viagra coupons from pfizer viagra coupon pfizer
prescription coupon modelosguayaquil.com canada drug pharmacy coupon
prescription coupon viagra prescription coupon canada drug pharmacy coupon
abortion pill abortion pill abortion pill
abortion pill abortion pill abortion pill
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and calcium supplements lisinopriland.net lisinopril and calcium supplements
erectiepillen zonder voorschrift bij apotheek viagra online kaufen sildenafil pfizer
erectiepillen zonder voorschrift bij apotheek viagra bestellen sildenafil pfizer
cialis coupons from manufacturer blog.nvcoin.com free discount prescription cards
lilly cialis coupon codesamples.in free printable cialis coupons
cialis coupon codes site prescription coupon card
free cialis samples coupon blog.suntekusa.com prescription drug cards
free cialis samples coupon click prescription drug cards
discount prescription drug card click internet drug coupons
seroquel karensmith.us seroquel
loperamida para que es loperamide loperamide dosage
tadalafil mazsoft.com tadalafil
tadalafil site tadalafil
coversyl 4 mg twodrunkmoms.com coversyl notice
plavix indication mcmurray.biz plavix vidal
baclofen 10 mg tablet blog.ruleof3.ae baclofen wiki
chlorpromazine hydrochloride click chlorpromazine pdf
prograf prograf prografia aps
prograf thepoliticalsword.com prografia aps
abilify tablete totspub.com abilify forum
neurontin cena neurontin neurontin
discount coupons for prescriptions farsettiarte.it free cialis coupon
discount coupons for prescriptions free printable cialis coupons free cialis coupon
about abortion armyrotc.uga.edu abortion clinics in san diego
amoxicillin endikasyonlar amoxicillin 500 mg amoxicillin 1000 mg
amoxicillin endikasyonlar achieveriasclasses.com amoxicillin 1000 mg
strattera voucher strattera.com coupons price of strattera
irbesartan hidroclorotiazida referencia irbesartana irbesartana 300
cialis coupon card coupon cialis cialis.com coupons
cialis coupon card alexebeauty.com cialis.com coupons
information about abortion pill abortion pill after abortion pill
information about abortion pill the abortion pill after abortion pill
cialis coupons free abraham.thesharpsystem.com free cialis coupon
cialis coupons free abraham.thesharpsystem.com free cialis coupon
ventolin brez recepta ventolin sprej ventolin vs berodual
ventolin brez recepta ventolin sprej ventolin vs berodual
viagra koupit viagra koupit viagra koupit
esomeprazole gxp cmi femchoice.org esomeprazole rbx cmi
esomeprazole gxp cmi esomeprazole gxp used for esomeprazole rbx cmi
vermox delovanje vermox cena vermox
prescription coupon card coupons for cialis 2016 free printable cialis coupons
coupons free viagra savings and coupons discount prescription drug card
coupons free prescription drug card discount prescription drug card
how much is a abortion pill average cost of an abortion pill price of an abortion pill
amoxicillin nedir amoxicillin al 1000 amoxicillin-rnp
thyrax duitsland thyrax thyrax duitsland
vermox vermox prodej vermox alkohol
voltaren voltaren nedir voltaren ampul
nootropil buy nootropil 800 g nootropil
nootropil buy nootropil review nootropil
abortion pill procedures when is it too late to get an abortion pill abortion pill online
vermox vermox pret vermox
vermox ibrahimbayir.com.tr vermox
neurontin neurontin neurontin 400
neurontin 400 neurontin 100 mg neurontin cena
how much is the abortion pill free abortion pill how does abortion pill work
voltaren nedir voltaren retard voltaren ampul
amoxicillin 500 mg amoxicillin amoxicillin
amoxicillin 500 mg aictmkulahospital.org amoxicillin
viagra viagra wiki viagra wiki
viagra viagra wiki viagra wiki
duphaston i ovulacija duphaston tablete duphaston cijena bez recepta
coupons for cialis printable free coupon for cialis coupons for cialis
aspiration abortion abortion pill debate abortion pill video
vermox alkohol hieple.net vermox
vermox alkohol hieple.net vermox
home abortion pill methods low cost abortion pill abortion pill debate
vermox mikor hat vermox mikor hat vermox pret
coupon for free cialis cialis discount coupon coupons cialis
late term abortion pill clinics average cost of abortion how does abortion pill work
cialis cialis generic cialis
cialis cialis kopiprodukter cialis
cialis cialis kopiprodukter cialis
what is an abortion pill free abortion pill aspiration abortion
amoxicillin al 1000 mipnet.dk amoxicilline
cheap abortion pill clinics angkortaxiservice.com after abortion pill
cheap abortion pill clinics having an abortion after abortion pill
cheap abortion pill clinics having an abortion after abortion pill
addiyan chuk chuk addiyar newspaper addyi
addiyan chuk chuk peider.dk addyi
acetazolamide 250 mg tablets acetazolamide cerebral edema acetazolamide blood brain barrier
viagra online charamin.jp viagra koupit
average cost of an abortion pill arborawning.com abortion pill cost without insurance
medical abortion clinics when can you terminate a pregnancy where do you have an abortion
addyi addyi fda addiyar newspaper
abortion pill process arborawning.com abortions facts
cost of medical abortion amazonschools.com abortion pill cost
cost of medical abortion amazonschools.com abortion pill cost
voltaren krem nedir voltaren voltaren gel
nootropil danmark nootropil nootropil piracetam
duphaston tablete za odgodu menstruacije duphaston tablete kako se piju duphaston iskustva
duphaston tablete za odgodu menstruacije duphaston tablete kako se piju duphaston iskustva
duphaston tablete za odgodu menstruacije duphaston tablete kako se piju duphaston iskustva
vermox mikor hat vermox vermox pret
vermox mikor hat blog.pragmos.it vermox pret
neurontin 100 mg neurontin 400 neurontin cena
neurontin 100 mg neurontin 400 neurontin cena
amoxicillin dermani haqqinda aegdr.org amoxicillin 500 mg
first trimester want an abortion abortion pills for sale
abortion complications abortion horror stories abortion las vegas
abortion complications abortion clinics in milwaukee abortion las vegas
debates on abortion blog.newhomesdirectory.com abortion process
good abortion stories abortion clinics in memphis tn dilation and curettage miscarriage
good abortion stories when can you terminate a pregnancy dilation and curettage miscarriage
lilly coupons for cialis drug coupons cialis discounts coupons
copay cards for prescription drugs katkavaughan.net internet drug coupons
new prescription coupons cameronswan.co.uk coupon for free cialis
new prescription coupons coupon cialis coupon for free cialis
abortion new york natural way to terminate pregnancy does insurance cover abortion
abortion pill badjuju.se post abortion stress syndrome
abortion pill homemade abortion post abortion stress syndrome
lilly cialis coupons marcusuniforms.com cialis coupons 2015
naltrexone experiences click naltrexone indications
naltrexone experiences saveapanda.com naltrexone indications
low dose naltrexone fertility tymejczyk.com naltrexone fda approval
naltrexone uk what is vivitrol medication naltrexone over the counter
naltrexone uk naltrexone injection cost naltrexone over the counter
naltrexone opioid naltrexone brand name what is the difference between naloxone and naltrexone
naltrexone opioid naktrexone what is the difference between naloxone and naltrexone
revia reviews open stopping naltrexone
revia reviews open stopping naltrexone
naltrexone challenge site.cegep-rimouski.qc.ca what happens if you take naltrexone and opiates
narcan challenge test blog.admissionnews.com vivitrol wiki
low dose naltrexone pregnancy partickcurlingclub.co.uk opioid blocker injection
low dose naltrexone sleep low dose naltrexone weight loss alcohol naltrexone
define naltrexone low dose naltrexone buy uk naltrexone 50 mg side effects
define naltrexone link naltrexone 50 mg side effects
when to take ldn does drinking alcohol help with opiate withdrawal how long will naltrexone block opiates
naltrexone dosing for alcohol dependence open naltrexone diarrhea
西南山地

2015年3月21日,周末,大晴天。窗外金黄的油菜花田依旧灿烂,甜腻腻的惹人兴奋。吃过早饭,带足了饮水,从镇上的小超市胡乱买了一大堆垃圾食品,我们就开着小卡卡浩浩荡荡地往白熊坪而去。

项目团队

    项目支持伙伴

    关于

    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

    链接

    关注