文:朱靖江 — 2015-7-16 16:51:16

影像权力的漂移:海外“原住民影像”运动简史

 
  在半个世纪的“原住民影像”发展过程中,原本作为人类学记录与研究手段的影视拍摄技术,逐渐为被世界各地的土著民族所掌握。通过拍摄与剪辑影片,他们也开始从被人代言的“他者”,转变为主动表达其社会思想与文化观念的影像民族志作者。
 
  索尔•沃斯与约翰•阿代尔主持的“纳瓦霍人电影计划”,堪称世界上首次将摄像机交给“原住民”并给予系统性技术培训,以观察非西方的文化群体如何藉由影像语言进行自我表达的跨文化研究项目。在松树泉社区,索尔•沃斯与约翰•阿代尔挑选了性别、年龄、身份和受教育程度各不相同的七名纳瓦霍人,经过一周的训练之后,他们着手拍摄并剪辑了表现纳瓦霍人传统技艺与信仰的《一名纳瓦霍纺织者》、《纳瓦霍银匠》、《纳瓦霍精灵》、《老羚羊湖》、《未命名》和更富于艺术气质的《浅水井》、《无畏的影子》等七部片长在10-20分钟之间的电影作品。“纳瓦霍人电影计划”虽然并未实现索尔•沃斯厘清视觉语法普遍规律的初衷,却成功地证明从活动影像中获取意义或感受是一种根植于人类意识深处的功能,因此,无论性别、年龄与文化背景差异,人们都有能力学习并掌握电影的拍摄和剪辑,并且通过影像的方式表达自己的意愿。这也激发了更多影视人类学者在世界各地训练本土民族志电影作者,让他们独立发出自己的声音。
 
  如果说“纳瓦霍人电影计划”是由美国人类学者主持的一次原住民影像创作的学术性实验,那么由加拿大国家电影局推动的“挑战促变革”(Challenge for Change)行动计划,则是一场规模浩大、影响深远的原住民影像拍摄活动。该计划诞生于1967年,直至1980年才进人尾声。“挑战促变革”计划的宗旨是将影片创作的控制权,从职业电影人的手中转交给社区成员,让“失声者”发言,让生活在边缘社会的普通人有机会在银幕上讲述自己的故事。
 
  在“挑战促变革”计划的实施过程中,由纽芬兰福古岛居民与电影工作者共同开创的“福古岛流程”,具有标志性的示范意义。1967年,加拿大国家电影局委派纪录片导演科林•洛前往地处偏远的福古岛,就岛民的移民搬迁等问题进行影像拍摄和议题调研。影片摄制组希望能够给予福古岛人更多的能动机会,来界定与表述他们的社会问題,因此,纪录片作者不再将该社区仅仅视作影片素材的来源地,而是期待着将影片的拍摄流程服务于社区成员的集体表达,即由当地人商讨、决定影片的主題,拍摄完成的影片在社区内部进行放映,社区成员拥有对影像内容的控制权等——这就是“福古岛流程”的重要指标。
 
  “福古岛流程”在三个层面上起到了“赋权”(Empower)的积极作用。首先,从社区成员的角度来说,参与影像创作为他们带来了表达意见、发表观点的可能性。在“拍摄——剪辑——放映”的过程当中,社区成员不再只是传统意义上的被拍摄对象,而是影片内容的掌控者,这使得他们的自我评价得以提升,并且增进了他们对公共事务的影响力。其次,从社区的整体角度来说,“福古岛流程”的进展是一次展开公共讨论、凝聚集体共识、促进组织与合作的过程。通过观看影片,社区所面临的主要问题得以展现在众人面前,促使人们思考、辩论和采取行动,最终形成解决问题的自主性决策;而在偏远、闭塞的地区,集中放映的影片还为分散的居民提供了一种“虚拟社区”(Virtual Community)式的集体感受,使得原本隔绝的人们彼此产生认同感,并将自己想象为一个共同体中的成员。第三,就社区与外部世界的关系而言,经由“福古岛流程”所产生的影片及其表达的观点,能够通过影视机构的公映、传播渠道,在更为广阔的社会环境中获得关注,甚至影响到权威部门的决策意见。
 
  马鞍后面隐藏的不仅仅是一个工艺更是一个人生 摄影/郭思宇
 
  在“挑战促变革”计划历时13年的影像运动中,一共产生了 140余部由社区居民或原住民团体与电影人、人类学者合作拍摄的影片,更为重要的是,它将电影摄制活动演化为一种延续文化传统、推动社会变革、伸张公民权利、促进民主决策机制的社会干预行为。电影第一次被赋予了艺术创作与学术表述之外的功用,影像在社会变革中的推动作用也得到更为广泛的认同,对于影像民族志的发展进程而言,“福古岛流程”建立了一套自下而上摄制“主位”影像文本的基本法则,在此基础之上,更为人类学界关注与倡导的“原住民影像民族志”,得以在世界各地蓬勃地发展起来。
 
  在1970年代后期,影像摄制技术的进步,令更为廉价易得和方便操作的磁带式电子摄像机(VTR)与剪辑设备进人到民族志影片的制作领域,这对于原住民的影像生产起到了重要的推动作用。随著电视、广播等视听媒体在社会各领域的影响力迅猛扩张,越来越多的原住民团体意识到:可以通过影像传播方式,将自身的政治和文化意愿向更广大范围的受众表达。特别是在1980年代之后,以影像创作为主流方式的原住民媒体,日益成为一种不可忽视的文化与政治力量。
 
  以巴西原住民影像的发展历程为例,由于巴西境内的亚马逊丛林地区生活着众多语言、文化背景不同的部族,因此历来是全球人类学者、民族志电影作者开展研究与拍摄工作的重要地区。从1980年代以来,由圣保罗原住民工作中心支持的“乡村影像汁划”是巴西原住民影像发展史上的两个代表性项目。“乡村影像汁划”由巴西民族志电影作者文森特•卡莱里发起于1987年,其宗旨是让影像成为原住民获得信息、进行交流与表达的工具;重新以原住民的视角解读历史,确立他们的文化身份和他们与其他族群的差异性。“乡村影像计划”将影像制作设备分发给多个原住民村落(后来在多个地区设立培训机构),训练各族裔的青年人如何操作摄像机,并且建立起一个在村落之间发行和交换录像带的系统。培训、制作和流通构成了这一计划的基本流程。
 
  原住民运用影像工具从事文化传承与权利诉求,具有其他媒介形式难以比拟的优势:首先,由于亚马逊地区无文字民族长期以舞蹈、装饰和体姿、手势传达意义,惯于以视觉而非语言方式传递信息,因此,原住民影像具有独立自足的表达能力,也可以超越语言隔阂,成为不同族群之间的文化纽带。其次,影像传播具有“集体共享”的性质。在无文字社会当中,非语言的交流方式——如参与一场仪式活动或者一场影片放映会——基于它们的唤起能力,一般都具有决定性的作用。对于参与者而言,易于理解的文化影像在眼前的呈现,已经足以让他们分享一个故事,并且在日后将其逐步完善。这种分享与体验是文化传播的另一种方式,具有语言、文字传承难以达到的效果。
 
  纵观全球范围内的原住民影像民族志,以“局内人”姿态出现的原住民作者,一方面宣示本族群的“文化主权”,呈现出外来者难以获得的内部知识;另一方面,基于其“主位”立场,原住民影像也难以避免地存在某些文化偏见,如过分强调本土文化与外来文化之间的差异性,对于来自外界的“客位”表述持排斥态度。尽管如此,原住民自我表达、自我呈现的影像民族志,根本性地改写了民族志电影作者与被拍摄对象之间的关系,在一定程度上消除了影像创作的文化殖民霸权,建立了一种前所未有的叙事话语,产生了更为深人,具有多元阐释价值的影像文本,在当代影像文化的发展过程中占有无可替代的地位。
 
  转自新知杂志
 
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自然学堂

通过拍摄与剪辑影片,他们也开始从被人代言的“他者”,转变为主动表达其社会思想与文化观念的影像民族志作者。

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