文:本站原创 — 2016-3-14 16:01:54

无论你去过与否 都应该知道的三江源

夏日寺九曲通天 彭建生/摄

  2012年~2014年,由阿拉善SEE公益机构支持,青海省三江源国家级自然保护区管理局、北京大学自然保护与社会发展研究中心、山水自然保护中心以及影像生物调查所(IBE)联合开展的三江源生物多样性快速调查(简称RAP)正式启动。这是三江源第一次开展生物多样性的综合本底调查。

  此次调查范围覆盖长江源,黄河源和澜沧江源区域,行程上万公里。分别对草地、植被物候、昆虫(包括蚂蚁专项)、鱼类、两栖爬行类、小型兽类,大型兽类等类群进行了调查。此次调查有很多新发现,包括几十个新种。获得了近万张非常出色的照片和视频影像,因而能够直观和生动的把科学,自然和保护的内容展现出来,这种尝试在国内尚属首次。

黑唇鼠兔  董磊/摄

  调查结果显示,长江源区和澜沧江源区的小型兽类都很贫乏,分别为9种和8种,两个区域加在一起也只有12种,种类组成高度一致。食虫类很少,只有1种,鼠科种类有2种,仓鼠科种类有6种,鼠兔科种类3种。缺乏跳鼠科、林跳鼠科种类。黄河源区小型兽类多样性显著高于其他两个区域,有20种之多,其中食虫类有6种之多,鼠兔类有7种,还有跳鼠科和林跳鼠科种类。调查区域是青藏高原主体的一部分,一些地方人迹罕至,调查的区域开展的科学研究也很少,玉树区域小型兽类如此详细的调查还是第一次。


岩羊 彭建生/摄

  三江源位于青藏高原腹地,是亚洲三条主要河流长江、黄河、澜沧江的发源地,为流域十几亿人口提供清洁的水源,是全球最重要,也是最脆弱的生态区之一。这里仍保留着地球上已剩不多的完整的自然食物链,除野牦牛、藏野驴、藏羚羊等高原特有的濒危动物外,也是世界上最神秘的大型猫科动物雪豹最完整的栖息地。

藏野驴 董磊/摄

  然而,如同曾在这个星球上繁茂无疆的雨林、草原、山川和野生动物一样,三江源以及它庇护的独特的生物多样性正在气候变化与人类行为的逼迫下逐步“退却”。缺乏科学严谨的整体考查,缺乏有效的保护信息,当三江源的荒野不再,生命的轨迹将回归何处?

  根据此次调查结果,黄河源地区,海拔较低,植被类型多样,由此以膜翅目的叶蜂类昆虫与鳞翅目的蝶类为代表的昆虫种类较丰富。澜沧江源头地区,海拔较高,植被较单一,但水资源丰富,且没有污染,所以特有类群所占比例较高。澜沧江源头地区海拔较高,生境原始,蝙蚌蛾分布较广,位于其内部的杂多县有虫草之乡的美称。


香鼬 彭建生/摄

  分析认为,三江源地区属于青藏高原的腹地,生态脆弱,生物种类稀少。在澜沧江源头地区囊谦县和杂多县境内仅采集记录蚁科昆虫12种,物种丰富远不能与藏东南地区(222种)相比,足见环境之苛刻。澜沧江源头地区虽然蚂蚁物种贫乏,但是少数优势种的种群数量却相当可观,在自然生态系统中的功用不容忽视。青海省果洛藏族自治州蚂蚁物种的种群数量大,密度高,在该地生态系统演替中扮演重要角色,主要包括改良土壤、传播植物种子、为植物授粉、平衡害虫种群等方面。调查过程中对海拔3730米草地生态系统调查点的蚁巢和个体密度进行测定,结果显示平均个体密度为每平方米38头。在这样的个体密度下,每年通过筑巢、取食产生的生态效益十分可观。澜沧江源头地区4个调查点,其植被类型和蚂蚁物种各具特点,均具有保护价值。


藏狐 郭亮/摄

  从水平分布看,长江源区和澜沧江源区调查区域4种不同的景观类型中小型兽类物种各不相同。平坦的冲积平原草原,或者是山间丘状草甸景观中主要物种是黑唇鼠兔,其种群数量极大,密度极高,黑唇鼠兔是整个环境的控制性组分和关键物种。偶尔有青海田鼠、根田鼠、白尾松田鼠和长尾仓鼠分布。土壤松软、土层较厚而肥沃,地势较缓,植被稀疏的阳坡草甸景观中,黑唇鼠兔也是主要的建群物种。很少见到其他小型兽类分布。

  第三种地势较陡峭或平缓,但土壤石砾较多,相对湿润,灌丛植被盖度较大的阴坡及河谷地带景观物种较丰富。是高原松田鼠的主要栖息地,间颅鼠兔也仅分布于该类景观中。尤其高原松田鼠在该类景观中的种群数量很大,密度极高。该类景观还采集到了藏韵霸。韵霸属于食虫类动物,以昆虫及其幼体、软体无脊椎动物为食,个体很小,但食量大,需要不断进食,因此,要求生境中昆虫、软体无脊椎动物种类多、资源量大。满足这样条件的生境一般是演化级别高、演化时间长、群落稳定、生物多样性丰富的生境。从这个意义看,调查区域内部分灌丛生态系统是演化程度高、稳定的生态系统。正是由于两岸地势陡峭,土壤瘠薄,岩石以片页岩为主,分化破碎严重,有稀疏灌丛覆盖的干燥闷热的河谷景观中物种相对贫乏,川西鼠兔主要分布于该景观中。


高山兀鹫 彭建生/摄

  分析人士指出,目前澜沧江上游区域正在进行大规模的水电开发,在建坝后,河流形态改变成人工湖泊,由于阻隔徊游、分割栖息地、改变自然水文节律和饵料环境等影响,适应于原来生态环境的河流和湿地的两栖类和鸟类物种会受到很大影响。因此,在此区域内开展水电工程建设须经过严格的环境影响评价程序,确认工程建设对物种的影响较小或者影响影响减免措施能够起到保护相关物种的效果,方可开展。


喜马拉雅旱獭 彭建生/摄

本文转载自《中国林业》杂志

撰文:聂璇

本帖供图:IBE影像生物调查所

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三江源

历时3年,三江源终于交出第一份生物多样性综合本底调查答卷。这意味着什么?三江源首份生物多样性调查结果又告诉了我们什么?

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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