文:本站原创 — 2016-3-21 10:13:12

它用了14年,在全球开花结果

这是一幅当前采用协议保护的策略开展保护行动的项目点地图。供图/田犎

        14年前,保护国际(CI, Conservation International)与南美洲的圭亚那政府签订了第一个保护协议,取得了8万公顷原始森林的特许保护权。10年前,在山水自然保护中心的推动下,中国第一期协议保护项目在青海省三江源国家级自然保护区、四川省丹巴县和平武县同时启动,在藏区与汉区、草原与森林的不同文化与生态环境下推动协议保护在中国的实践。如今,协议保护项目已遍布全球14个国家和地区,签订51份保护协议,1500万公顷生态热点区域得到保护,35000人从中受益。

什么是协议保护 

协议保护模式图 供图/田犎

        协议保护(Conservation Agreement)是由国家部门及其他同意保护自然生态环境的投资者(甲方),以协议的形式,鼓励保护者或当地的社区老百姓(乙方)实施保护行为,并依据行为成效而获得补偿或回报的生态补偿模式。协议保护模式有着切实可行的操作办法,一般包括选点与可行性分析,缔约、设计协议、协议协商、实施与监测、再协商、项目扩展及可持续机制等组成部分,能够适用于森林、草原、海洋等不同生态系统的保护,根据不同区域的政治、文化、经济特点,政府、企业、NGO和社区老百姓可能作为协议的甲方或乙方参与保护行动。

协议保护项目如何在全球开花结果


印尼协议保护项目  Fitri供图

        协议保护项目(CSP, Conservation Steward Program)在2005年召开第一届国际网络交流会议,并启动协议保护项目试点。通过总结试点经验编撰的,拥有一套完整模式和项目框架的《协议保护项目操作手册》 在全球迅速推广,并经过数次国际网络交流会议进行了从保护权利、保护补偿、保护主体等多个角度的深入探讨,对手册进行了多次改版。而在政治、经济、文化、生态等方面存在迥异差别的不同试点的成功,也为协议保护项目的成功提供了有力佐证。

        反观14年前从一个协议保护理念,到如今协议保护项目在全球的开花结果,也许如下几个因素都是不可或缺的:1,顺应大势,针对保护工作的具体症结给出解决方案;2,一个顺应和引领大势的理念;3,一套完整的模式和项目框架;4,好的领导和团队;5,每个发展阶段解决一个关键问题;6,合作伙伴的发展和国际网络的构建。

国际协议保护项目案例分享

        今年是协议保护第七届国际网络交流会议,于1月23-27日在成都举行。这次会议由保护国际基金会“协议保护”项目主办,山水自然保护中心及保护国际基金会北京代表处协办,来自全球26个国家和地区的66名代表参加了本次会议,其中来自国际野生生物保护学会(WCS)、大自然保护协会(TNC)、联合国环境规划署(UNEP)、 全球环境研究所(GEI),世界自然基金会(WWF)、野生动物保护国际(FFI)等机构的代表也参加了本次交流会议。会议分享了若干在全球各地开展协议保护项目的经典案例。会后,大家还前往理县甘堡村及熊尔村实地走访,了解中国协议保护项目的具体开展情况。

        协议保护项目的可持续机制是与会代表讨论和关心最多的一个主题,如何可持续的获得保护资金,并使保护项目持续性开展下去,下面的案例也许能够提供参考。 

Xate在当地市场  供图/冯杰

        危地马拉的Uaxactún 位于玛雅生物圈保护区内。当地村民以采集一种棕榈树Xate的叶子为生。这种植物只生长在热带雨林的林下,欧洲鲜花市场常用这种叶子做鲜花配材。1999年,危地马拉保护区管理委员会将Uaxactún 周边83558公顷森林的25年的管理权给予当地社区组织OMYC,OMYC需要支付租金,木材和非木材利用税。2009年起,危地马拉保护区管理委员会、野生动物保护协会(WCS)、保护国际基金会(CI)和OMYC合作在Uaxactún村开展协议保护项目,在社区履行不砍伐和放牧、防止森林火灾、不毁林开荒,保护珍稀物种的承诺的前提下,帮助村民开展Xate的人工种植,并以高于当地市场价2美分/叶的价格帮助社区对接市场。Xate产业的发展使社区周边83558公顷珍稀物种的栖息地得以保护,250名村民从Xate种植和销售中直接获益,同时OMYC得以持续性支付该区域租金。为此,危地马拉总统于2014年特意来到小村,以表彰村民们对保护森林的贡献。


Sovi Basin保护地的工作人员  供图/田犎

        建立在斐济主岛的Sovi Basin保护地有20000公顷土地,年度资金需求约为18.7 万美元,包括土地租约以及木材采伐经营权、发展社区的可持续生计、社区保护管理计划等。2008年,斐济水基金会、保护国际(CI)与全球环境基金(GEF)共同建立一个99年的信托基金,总筹资额400万美元,由斐济国家信托(NTF,National Trust of Fiji)负责管理,由汇丰银行(HSBC -新加坡)操作资金投资,捐助方则保持对冻结资金的所有权。该基金目前仍运转良好,年回报大于5%,能够很好的支持Sovi Basin保护地开展工作。


熊尔村村委会墙上的保护与发展示意图 供图/田犎

        2008年,四川理县林业局作为保护协议的甲方全程参与了在理县马山村的首批协议保护项目试点实施。2011年开始实施集体公益林补偿政策时,理县林业局面对缺乏补偿政策操作细则的难题时,借鉴马山村协议保护的管理经验制定了以村级董事会为基础的一整套集体林进行股份制经营管理制度。理县林业局按照“分股不分山、分利不分林”的原则转换经营机制,成立集体林股份经营管理股东会,并通过选举成立了董事会,明确经营主体,对集体公益林实行集体统一经营管理。理县81个村、2个居委会总共成立了88个集体山林经营管理董事会,管理全县109.1万亩集体林。每年1483.2万元的公益林补偿资金依据该制度得到有效使用。


第七届国际网络交流会议合影 摄影/郭思宇

四川省林业厅对此次会议进行了报道 详情点击链接http://www.yaly.gov.cn/scly/zhuzhan/yaowenzhuandi/20160127/12372200.html

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协议保护项目已遍布全球14个国家和地区,签订51份保护协议,1500万公顷生态热点区域得到保护,35000人从中受益。

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    山水自然保护中心于2007年建立。我们通过观察、记录和研究自然,寻找和当地的守护者一起保护自然的方式。我们在中国生物多样性最丰富的三江源、西南山地及澜沧江区域(青海、云南、四川、甘肃、陕西)开展保护工作。

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